Source and methodology
Stateless in Brazil is a multimedia reporting that aims to reveal who are the people, through numbers, in the national and international reports on statelessness. The text contains testimony from two stateless persons and a warm family, as well as interviews with a lawyer, social worker, educator, therapist and public and private sector employees in the area of health and work. Based on the initial data of the UNHCR in 2014, with an alarming number of more than 10 million people stateless or at risk of statelessness around the world; I continued searching for national data. In order to investigate the object, it was necessary to apply characteristics of data journalism, in which the system of compilation, cleaning, analysis and association of data was used; contextualizing facts that try to answer the reasons why people are considered stateless, and their consequences. The Law on Access to Information (LAI), 12,527/2011, served to find general data on stateless persons in the country. Despite this, I came across a certain divergence in the information contained in the reports of international Non-governmental organization to the official national bodies - especially as regards the number of stateless persons, due to the failures of identification during entry into the country. Throughout the process of making the multimedia reporting, one of the obstacles to the location of stateless persons in Brazil was due to the resistance of the press agencies of the official agencies to pass on the information. The justification: lack of data, due to the lack of recognition mechanisms in the country, before the Law of Migration. In one of the participations in the events with the theme Refugees, I had the opportunity to speak with an UNHCR representative and we discussed the discrepancy and absence of the updated data, as well as the confusion of identification of stateless persons in the country. The collaboration of professionals from the Brazilian media was also favorable to obtain such data, such as the journalist Fernando Jordão, Correio Braziliense, author of the article "Citizens of no place: DF has 11 residents without nationality", of where I extracted sources and characters for the story. Like Fernando, one of the greatest collaborations to obtain data was the journalist Pablo Pereira, of the newspaper O Estado de São Paulo (who also published articles about Maha Mamo), and made available a report of the National Register of Foreigners (RNE), sent to him by the Ministry of Justice's own press office in 2016. The challenge of locating the characters in Non-governmental organization and projects aimed at refugees and stateless persons (in which more than 60 institutions and projects were contacted throughout the country) of ignorance of the society in general and the protection on the part of the stateless ones. To contextualize the issue, I used in-depth interviews with available stateless persons from the Middle East: Maha Mamo from Lebanon and Ahmad Hosien from Saudi Arabia. Although I have met Maha several times at events, I opted for a face-to-face interview at her apartment in Belo Horizonte, to experience the sensations that her story would cause me in the first moment. For Ahmad Hosien, a resident of Brasilia, the depth interview was applied, but without many resources, due to the impossibility of displacement. For the specialists of diverse areas with focus on the resocialization, research interviews were used, with the objective to analyze what is happening in the Brazilian scenario and to cross with the documented information. In order to explore the multimedia universe of the vehicles that serve as a model for the project, in August an interview was conducted in the UOL TAB office in the city of São Paulo, with the editor Daniel Tozzi; in which I was presented the multimedia methodology used in the TAB and in the Brazilian market; besides the repercussion of the published reports. Because it was a sensitive subject, regarding the traumas of stateless people, I was concerned to report the facts ethically. Based on the premise of caution when merging data journalism with testimonials of real stories. For the editing of the content, redoubled care was necessary, in order to result in a balanced and reflective report to the reader - without any noises of manipulation (blatant ethical deviation).